Do you ever have trouble with encodings? I used to in the past, but now I rarely do, because I do a simple thing. While knowing the things I explained in part 1 and part 2 of this series is necessary, otherwise I wouldn’t be able to fix problems, such problems rarely arise, because the first thing I do when I setup a GNU/Linux machine is set the system locale to UTF-8.
The “locale” is the regional settings, among which the character encoding used. The procedure to set it up is this:
- Open the file
/etc/locale.genin an editor and make sure the line that begins with “en_US.UTF-8” is uncommented.
- Enter the command
locale-gen; this will (re)generate the locales.
- Open the file
/etc/default/localein an editor, and make sure it contains the line
LANG=en_US.UTF-8. Changes in this file require logout and login to take effect.
Let me now explain what all this is about. The locale consists of a language, a country, and a character encoding; “en_US.UTF-8” means English, United States, UTF-8. This tells programs to show messages in American English; to format items such as dates in the way it’s done in the United States; and to use encoding UTF-8.
Different users can be using different locales. If you have a desktop computer used by you and your spouse, one could be using English and the other French. Each user does this by setting the
LANG environment variable to the desired locale; if not, the default system locale is used for that user. For servers this feature is less important. While your Django application may display the user interface in different languages (and format dates and numbers in different ways), this is done by Django itself using Django’s internationalization and localization machinery and has nothing to do with what we are discussing here, which affects mostly the programs you type in the command line, such as
ls. Because for servers the feature of users specifying their preferred locale isn’t so important, we usually merely use the default system locale, which is specified in the file
/etc/default/locale. Since you can understand English, “en_US.UTF-8” is fine. If you prefer to use another country, such as “en_UK.UTF-8”, it’s also fine, but it’s no big deal, as I will explain later on.
Although the system can support a large number of locales, many of these are turned off in order to save a little disk space. You turn them on by adding or uncommenting them in file
/etc/locale.gen. When you execute the program
locale-gen, it reads
/etc/locale.gen and determines which locales are activated, and it compiles these locales from their source files, which are relatively small, to some binary files that are those actually used by the various programs. We say that the locales are “generated”. If you activate all locales the binary files will be a little bit over 100 M, so the saving is not that big (it was important 15 years ago); however they will take quite some time to generate. Usually we only activate a few.
To check that everything is right, do this:
- Enter the command
locale; everything (except, possibly,
LC_ALL) should have the value
en_US.UTF-8.Enter the command
perl -e ''; it should do nothing and give no message.
locale command merely lists the active locale parameters.
LC_NUMERIC etc. are called “locale categories”, and usually they are all set to the same value. In some edge cases they might be set to different values; for example, on my laptop I use “en_US.UTF-8”, but especially for
LC_TIME I use “en_DK.UTF-8”, which causes Thunderbird to display dates in ISO 8601. This is not our concern here and it rarely is on a server. So we don’t set any of these variables, and they all get their value from
LANG, which is set by
However, sometimes you might make an error; you might specify a locale in
/etc/default/locale, but you might forget to generate it. In that case, the
locale command will indicate that the locale is active, but it will not show that anything is wrong. This is the reason I run
perl -e ''. Perl is a programming language, like Python. The command
perl -e '', does nothing; it tells Perl to execute an empty program; same thing as
python -c ''. However, if there is anything wrong with the locale, Perl throws a big warning message; so
perl -e '' is my favourite way of verifying that my locale works. Try, for example,
LANG=el_GR.UTF-8 perl -e '' to see the warning message. So
locale shows you which is the active locale, and
perl -e '', if silent, indicates that the active locale has been generated and is valid.
I told you that the country doesn’t matter much for servers. Neither does the language. What matters is the encoding. You want to be able to manipulate all characters of all languages. Even if all your customers are English speaking, there may eventually be some remark about a Chinese character in a description field. Even if you are certain there won’t, it doesn’t make any sense to constrain yourself to an encoding that can represent only a subset of characters when it’s equally easy to use UTF-8. So you need to make sure you use UTF-8.
PostgreSQL will use the default locale for its databases (unless told to do otherwise). Your best bet is to do all the above before
apt install postgresql.
The programs you run at the command line will be producing output in your chosen encoding. Your terminal reads the bytes produced by these programs and must be able to decode them properly, so it must know how they are encoded. In other words, you must set your terminal to UTF-8 as well. Most terminals, including PuTTY and gnome-terminal, are by default set to UTF-8, but you can change that in their preferences.
This post is largely taken from the first chapter of my book.